Glossary of Terms

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Glossary of Terms
Explanation/s - in alphabetical order:

Glossary of Terms

Explanation/s - in alphabetical order:
Abdomen The last lower, and largest part of the body of an insect. Mandible Jaws, used to crush and consume food.
Aberration A specimen that is noticeably unlike others of the same species, abbreviated to ab. Manky A term to describe wild and domesticated Mallard hybrids.
Aestivation A summer resting period between stages of development, when no activity takes place. Meconium Liquid waste ejected by recently emerged adult Lepidoptera, it varies in colour depending on the species. Left over materials from the pupal stage.
Anal The rear end of an insect, i.e. anal claspers are a set of legs at the rear end of a larva. Melanic A black, or dark grey form of a species, i.e. the
Anisoptera Scientific term used for Dragonflies. Metathorax The lower of the three components, or parts that make up an insects thorax.
Apex The top corner of the fore wing, where the side and leading edge join. Migrant/s Birds, Moths and Butterflies that migrate to/from our shores, in Spring, summer and autumn.
Brood A new generation of adult insects, some species have more than one brood each year. Moulting When a larva sheds its skin, which is replaced from underneath with a new one.
Carbonaria A black, or dark grey form of a species, i.e. the Peppered Moth. Nigra A dark or melanic form of a species which is different to the normal appearance, i.e. the Scalloped Hazel moth has an  ab. nigra.
Chrysalis Another name for a Pupa, the third stage of  the life cycle of some insects. Nymph The larval stage of some insects, i.e. dragonflies, damselflies and shield bugs.
Cilia The fine fringe of hair like scales around the edge of some moths and butterflies. Ocelli Referring to the tiny primitive eyes of a larvae.
Ciliary Relating to the cilia fringe; for instance dark ciliary lines found at the base of the hind wing of Agonopterix Ciliella. Odonta A collective term for damselflies and dragonflies.
Claspers Rear set of legs on some larvae, mainly butterflies and moths. Ovum/Ova Egg/s
Claviform Club shaped marking. Ovipositing Egg laying
Clutch A group of eggs in a birds nest, laid within a few days of each other. Ovipositor A tube, or duct female insects use to deposit their eggs.
Cocoon Construction made by a larva in which to pupate. Postmedian The part of the wing that falls between the centre and the outer edge.
Coleoptera Collective, scientific name for an insect group which includes Beetles, and Ladybirds. Proboscis Tongue, or feeding tube of a moth, or butterfly.
Costa The leading edge of the wing, the trailing edge of the wing. Prolegs The set of true legs on the rear half of a larva, not including the anal claspers.
Diapause A summer resting period between stages of development, when no activity takes place. Patagium A part, or component of the upper thorax.
Dimorphic Different, i.e. the male and female Common Blue are sexually dimorphic, they differ in appearance. Pupa/Pupae Chrysalis, the stage between larva and adult.
Dorsal Top of the Back. Reniform Kidney, or bean shaped mark.
Dorsum Referring to the dorsal area, on the top of the Back. Rhopalocera Collective, scientific name for all Butterflies.
Eclipse Plumage Male Ducks often lose their bright breeding colours during late summer to mid winter. Scutellum The scutellum is a small triangular plate on the thorax of some insects (i.e. shield bugs) behind the outer edges of the thorax,  and between the forewing bases.
Fascia Outer, or visible surface area. Segments The individual sections that make up the thorax and abdomen of some insects, like caterpillars and dragonflies.
Filament/s Long thin fleshy protrusions that project from some larvae, i.e. the larvae of the Alder moth and the Light Emerald have filaments. Semi-looper A caterpillar that is not a looper, but doe's not have four full pairs of true legs.
Foodplant/s The plant, or types of plants consumed by some larvae. Spiracle/s A row of small holes along the sides of caterpillars, used to breath.
Frass Waste products, or droppings (stools) passed by larvae. Stigma A small spot, or mark.
Frenulum Waste products, or droppings (stools) passed by larvae. Subreniform Kidney, or bean shaped marking near the trailing edge of the wing.
Frons Referring to the fore head region of an insect. Subterminal Near to the apex of the wing on the costa.
Genitalia Sexual reproductive organs. Tegula A part, or component of the thorax.
Genitals Sexual reproductive organs. Teneral Some adult insects such as dragonflies, and shield bugs do not achieve their mature colouration immediately on emergence. At this immature adult stage they are referred to as 'Teneral'.
Hemiptera Collective, scientific name for bugs, Shield Bugs are in this group. Termen The outer edge of the wing, adjoining the leading and trailing edges of the wing.
Hermaphrodite An insect, or animal that has developed part male and part female, Hermaphrodites are rare. Thoracic Relating to the thorax.
Heterocera Collective, scientific name for all Moths. Thoracic Legs The first three pairs of legs of a larva nearest to the head, and differ from true legs, and anal claspers.
Heteroptera Referring to the family of insects that includes shield bugs. Thorax The second largest of the three main body parts of an insect, that comes between the head and the abdomen.
Hibernation A period of deep sleep and totally inactivity, resembling a comatose condition,  used to survive through the cold winter months. Tornus The lower corner of the outer edge of the wing, adjoining the trailing edge and outer edge of the wing.
Imago An adult (mature) insect. Torpid A temporary state of dormancy, inactivity or sluggishness. Insects that play dead as a defensive measure are said to be torpid, also become torpid when the temperatures are to low for them.
Incubation The period after eggs being laid, and up to hatching out. True Legs Caterpillars have two three, or four pairs of true legs some times the first one, or two pairs are shorter.
Instar/s The stages of a larva, or larvae between skin moults. Zygoptera The collective, scientific term for damselflies.
Juvenile A young bird, or animal that has fledge, but is not yet mature.    
Larva/Larvae A young insect, between the egg and pupal stages. Only moth and butterfly larvae are called caterpillars.    
Lepidoptera The collective, scientific term for Butterflies and Moths.    
Leucistic A genetic defect that cause some or most of the colour to be replaced by white areas.    
Lepidopteran A member of the family of Lepidoptera.    
Lepidopterist A person who studies Butterflies and/or Moths.    
Looper A Geometridae caterpillar with only two pairs of true legs.    
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